Back to 1995 2nd Quarter Table of Contents

The Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine Vol. 10, No.2, 1995


Another Anecdote of Schizophrenia

A. Hoffer, M.D., Ph.D.

Download The Full Text Article in (PDF)

Back to 1995 archives

Back To Archive Home Page

Subscribe to the JOM

Professor J.G.D. Birkmayer and his associates at the Birkmayer Institute for Parkinson Therapy in Vienna, Austria, studied a stable form of NADH. They found that their stable preparation using 5 mg doses was therapeutic for Parkinson's disease, for Alzheimer's, and for depression.3 They wrote, "When we first used NADH with regard to its clinical efficacy the effect was not convincing. This was most likely due to the rapid dissolution (approximately 10-15 minutes) of the capsule leading to a release of NADH into the acid conditions of the stomach. Since NADH is rapidly oxidized below pH 7.6, the conditions in the stomach will inactivate NADH by converting it to NAD. The investigations of this report were therefore performed with NADH capsules coated with an acid stable film and a release time of 2-3 hours. With this galenic formulation of NADH an improvement in disability could be achieved which was comparable to that of intravenously applied NADH."

In our studies we used NAD, which was the only form of this coenzyme available, in doses of one gram daily, but the Austrian group found NADH active at 5 to 10 mg daily.

NAD and NADH are interconvertable in the body. This suggests that the active form is the reduced form, NADH, and that NAD is much less effective since it would first have to be reduced to NADH. The decreasing order of therapeutic efficacy would be NADH, NAD and finally vitamin B3. There would be no formation of NADH in the stomach from NAD, but there would be some made in the intestine.

I hope these recent Birkmayer studies will reactivate interest in the therapeutic effect of this potent coenzyme made from vitamin B3. It is available from Menuco Corporation, 350 Fifth Avenue, Suite 7509, New York, NY 10118.


1.   Hoffer A & Osmond H: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) as a treatment for schizophrenia. J. Psychopharmacology 1: 79-95, 1966.

2.   Hoffer A: Enzymology of Hallucinogens. Reprinted in: Enzymes in Mental Health. J.G. Martin & B. Kisch, Eds. J.B. Lippincott Co., 1966.

3.   Birkmayer W & Birkmayer JGD: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH): the new approach in the therapy of Parkinson's disease. Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science 19: 38-43, 1989.

Birkmayer JGD, Vrecko D, Volc D & Birkmayer W: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) - a new therapeutic approach to Parkinson's disease. Acta Neurol. Scand., vol. 87, Supp. 146,32-35, 1993. Birkmayer JGD: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) the new therapeutic approach for improving dementia of the Alzheimer's type. Forschungs- und Lehrein-richtung des Birkmayer Instituts fur Parkin-sontherapie. Vienna, Austria. Birkmayer JGD & Birkmayer W: The coenzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) as biological antidepressive agent. Experience with 205 Patients. New Trends in Clinical Neuropharmacology 5: 19-25, 1991.

[Home] [History] [Library] [Nutrients] [Resources] [Contact] [Contribute]
Back To Molecule

This website is managed by Riordan Clinic
A Non-profit 501(c)(3) Medical, Research and Educational Organization
3100 North Hillside Avenue, Wichita, KS 67219 USA
Phone: 316-682-3100; Fax: 316-682-5054
© (Riordan Clinic) 2004 - 2024c

Information on is provided for educational purposes only. It is not intended as medical advice.
Consult your orthomolecular health care professional for individual guidance on specific health problems.